Child neurology developed as a distinctive medical specialty after the Second World War. There were several factors influencing its beginning, among which the decline in mortality of infants in 40s and 50s was the most important. The consequence was the survival of children with symptoms of neurological damage requiring specialized, that means beyond pediatric, diagnostic and therapeutic methods.

Dynamic development of these methods which took place in the next decades due to the achievements in biochemistry, pathomorphology, genetics, radiology and other imaging techniques, contributed to the tremendous development of child neurology making it an attractive specialty for young doctors.

Child neurology, launched in 1950 by creating the first neurological department for children at the Neurological Clinic in Gdańsk and run by the first independent researcher habilitated in this specialty, prof Zofia Majewska, is currently represented by 8 Clinic and over 300 child neurologists working in different parts of Poland. Among them are 11 independent senior researchers, including 6 with the degree of full professor.

Polish Society of Child Neurologists, established in 1990 from the previously active sections of Polish Pediatric Society and Polish Neurological Society, is an organization of all child neurologists as well as other doctors who treat children with diseases of the nervous system.

Since 1991 the Society has published its own semiannual journal, the Child Neurology. Articles and papers presented there allow the detailed acquaintance with this field of medicine as its importance in the modern world is steadily growing.